Adipose tissue, when present, often causes the body to produce pro-inflammatory substances and may play as the leading cause to systemic inflammation of the body. As such study as shown, “Adipose tissue appears to play a central role in the induction of inflammation as over-nutrition leads to changes in it cellular composition and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.1” When the adipose tissue is at a constant production of these cytokines and fellow pro-inflammatory markers, systemic inflammation becomes present, which has been shown to increase the insulin resistance in cells of the body, which often leads to pre-diabetic and T2DM. “An inflammation was also demonstrated in pancreatic islets of T2DM patients as shown by the presence of amyloid deposits, fibrosis, increased beta cell death and infiltration of macrophages along with increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.1“ Another study has shown that “...production of TNF by cells in the adipose tissue of obese rodents provided early evidence of tissue inflammation in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2DM.2” Excessive adipose tissue has multiple factors of concern, and inflammation is just another reasoning to why obesity has a whole slew of multiplying health factors.
Esser N, Legrand-Poels S, Piette J, Scheen A, Paquot N. Inflammation as a link between obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2014. 141-150
Donath M, Shoelson S. Type 2 diabetes as an inflammatory disease. MacMillian Publishers 2011. PMID: 21233852 DOI: 10.1038/nri2925